Description: This session reviewed the implementation of NDCs in Asia and the Pacific region in the past 5 years and identified challenges and solutions in meeting the targets. Through the member states’ introduction of their implementation of NDCs, DMCs learned from each other on possible ways and means to incorporate energy development into the next round of NDC processes. The session also discussed how to scientifically and reasonably set the NDC goals to prepare for the NDC update in 2021.
Moderator: Preety Bhandari, Chief of the Climate Change, Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Opening Talk: Yongping Zhai, Energy Sector Chief, Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Scene-Setter Talk: Hongpeng Liu, Director of Energy Division, UNESCAP
Industrial Decarbonization: The Next Challenge
Presenter: Rathin Kukreja, Manager-Energy Efficiency, ICF Consulting India Pvt. Ltd.
As per the Paris Agreement at the UNFCC COP of 2015, member states agreed to limit global warming to 2 °C versus pre-industrial levels. Based on this member states have set up targets under Intended Nationally Determined Contributions(NDCs).
The industrial sector accounts for about 28 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so it is evident that these targets cannot be reached without decarbonization of industrial activities. Industries have a long lifetime, so upgrading these facilities to lower GHG emissions requires meticulous planning, and investments should start well in advance. Three industrial sectors – iron and steel, non-metallic minerals (glass, ceramics, etc.) and chemical industries – are responsible for 70% of all global direct industrial CO2 emissions today. These sectors are hard to abate, due to their relatively high share of emissions from feedstocks and high-temperature heat requirements.
This presentation reviewed the latest technological developments in industrial decarbonization as there is a need to identify the most promising technologies, processes and business models in energy-intensive sectors to help meet the ambitious climate targets.
The Opportunities and Challenges for Climate Mitigation Actions (NDCs and NAMAs)- The Case of Pakistan
Presenter: Sana Khan, Management Trainee Officer, National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority
Pakistan is a developing country, despite low emissions, it is ranked fifth when it comes to being affected by the impacts of climate change. During the period 1994-2013, the extreme climate events caused an economic loss of 4 billion USD. Pakistan having ratified Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement is working to achieve the greenhouse gas emission reduction goals set by the two. Currently, there are eight Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) that have been submitted by Pakistan of which six are still seeking support for implementation.
Similarly, meeting the 20% GHG reduction target by 2030, as a part of Pakistan’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), is facing challenges if the current energy mix remains the same. This study seeked to identify opportunities and barriers in the road towards climate mitigation actions undertaken under these agreements through SWOT analysis. The primary focus was on the NAMAs and NDCs prepared by the country.
The Road to Net-Zero in the Context of a Clean and Resilient Recovery
Presenter: John Murton, UK COP26 Envoy, UK Government
Net-zero target. The UK was the first major industrialized country to set a net-zero target for
2050. This was a major theme of COP 26 and, we believe, of UNFCCC climate action going forward. We contributed to a discussion and:
- Raised awareness about the benefit and methodology for setting a net zero target, including the political, practical and economic considerations
- Cooperated with Singapore and/or other Asian countries who have/are preparing a net zero target to disseminate the lessons from their experience
- Showcased UK tools to support target setting and monitoring such as our 2050 Calculator, a tool developed in the UK (and rolled out in a number of Asian countries already) to explore the options for reducing GHG emissions in their country, and the impact of climate change associated with them.
- Agus Sari, CEO and Co-Head, Restoration Advisory and Incubation Services, Landscape Indonesia and System IQ
- Briony Eales, Climate Change Law and Policy Specialist – Consultant, Asian Development Bank (ADB)